Matthew W. Baldwin & Co.


FirmennameMatthew W. Baldwin & Co.
OrtssitzPhiladelphia (Penns.)
StraßeBroad Street
Art des UnternehmensLokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik
AnmerkungenBis 1913 Pennsylvania Avenue, 15th Street, Broad Street und Spring Garden Street (Nordost-Ecke) und Hamilton Street, dann in Eddystone. Auch "Baldwin Locomotive Works". Auch Dampfmaschinenhersteller. Auch "M. W. Baldwin". Siehe auch als Person. Seit 1950: "Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Co." (s.d.)
Quellenangaben[Hunter: History ind. power USA 1 (1985) 71] [Matschoß: Entw Dampfmaschine (1908) II, 255] Internet: Steam Locomotive Builders [History of the Baldwin Locomotive Works 1831-1920]
Hinweise[McElroy's Philadelphia city directory (1866) 890] [Hexamer General Surveys, Plates 352-353+487+756-758 (1868+1874)] Abb. Eddystone Plant [Firmenschrift (um 1922)]


Zeit Ereignis
1817 M. W. Baldwin lernt den Beruf des Juweliers und tritt bei Fletcher & Gardiner, Juweliere und Silberschmiede in Philadelphia, ein.
1819 Matthias W. Baldwin macht sich als Juwelier selbstÀndig.
1825 Baldwin nimmt den Maschinenbauer David Mason in sein GeschĂ€ft auf. Sie stellen Buchbinderwerkzeuge und Zylinder fĂŒr den Kaliko-Druck her. Ihre WerkstĂ€tte ist in einer kleinen Allee nördlich der Walnut Street, oberhalb der Fourth Street. - SpĂ€ter ziehen sie in die Minor Street, unterhalb der Sixth Street, und eine stehende Dampfmaschine fĂŒr den eigenen Bedarf wird gebaut.
1830 Das Museum in Philadelphia lĂ€ĂŸt von Baldwin ein Modell der 1830 aus England fĂŒr die Camden & Amboy Railroad Co. eingefĂŒhrte Lokomotive "John Bull" bauen (steht spĂ€ter im Smithsonian). Dieses Modell arbeitet so perfekt, daß Baldwin bald danach den Auftrag fĂŒr eine Lokomotive in normaler GrĂ¶ĂŸe fĂŒr die Philadelphia, Germantown und Norristown Railroad, die "Old Ironsides" bekommt (deren nur 6 Meilen lange Strecke wurde bisher mit Pferden betrieben).
1831 GrĂŒndung durch Matthias Baldwin (vorher selbstĂ€ndig als Juwelier und ab 1825 als Buchbindereimaschinen-Hersteller tĂ€tig). Die ursprĂŒngliche Fabrik ist in der Broad Street in Philadelphia, PA, wo die Firma 71 Jahre ansĂ€ssig sein wird.
25.04.1831 Mit Hilfe von unvollkommenen, publizierten Beschreibungen und Skizzen der Lokomotiven, die am Wettrennen in Rainhill in England teilnahmen, baut Baldwin auf Anregung des EigentĂŒmers des Philadelphia Museum eine Miniaturlokomotive, die am 25. April auf Kiefernbrettern, die mit Bandeisen ("hoop iron") belegt sind, in den RĂ€umen des Museums in Bewegung gesetzt wird. Zwei kleine Wagen mit Sitzen fĂŒr vier Passagiere werden angehĂ€ngt, und das neuartige Schauspiel zieht Mengen von bewundernden Zuschauern an. Sowohl Anthrazit als auch Fichtenast-Kohle wird als Brennstoff verwendet, und der Auspuffdampf wird in den Schornstein geleitet, zum den Kaminzug zu erhöhen.
23.11.1832 Am 23. November 1832 wird die erste Baldwin-Lokomotive, "Old Ironsides", getestet, sie bewÀhrt sich, und bald folgen neue Bestellungen.
23.11.1832 Die erste Baldwin-Lokomotive "Ironsides" macht ihre Probefahrt
1835 Im Jahr 1835 werden bei Baldwin 14 Lokomotiven gebaut
1836 Im Jahr 1836 werden bei Baldwin 40 Lokomotiven gebaut.
1836-1837 In den Jahren 1836 und 1837 verschlechtert sich die allgemeine GeschĂ€ftslage in ganz Amerika. Baldwin muß seinen GlĂ€ubigern einen Vergleich anbieten. Er bittet sie, ihn noch zwei Jahre sein GeschĂ€ft fortfĂŒhren zu lassen.
1861 Von 1831 bis 1861 werden in den Baldwin-Werken 1.000 Lokomotiven hergestellt.
1873 Die "Empresa del Ferro-Carril Urbano y Omnibus de La Habana" in Havanna bestellt sechs Dampfstraßenbahn-Lokomotiven.
1891 Im Jahr 1891 wird die 12.000ste Baldwin-Lokomotive hergestellt.
1896 Im Jahr 1896 wird 15.000 Lokomotive hergestellt.
1912 Umzug in eine neue Fabrik in Eddystone. (Das GelÀnde wird um 2000 von F. W. Hake's Trucking Co. genutzt)
1930 Übernahme der "Southwark Foundry and Machine Company", Philadelphia, und Umwandlung in "Baldwin Southwark Corporation", eine Tochterfirma von Baldwin
1950 Anschluß der Lima Locomotive Works und Umwandlung in "Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Co."


Produkt ab Bem. bis Bem. Kommentar
Dampflokomotiven 1832 Beginn (ab 23.11. versucht) 1954 Ende nach 76.147 Loks Insgesamt 76147 Lokomotiven gebaut.
Dampfmaschinen 1826 fĂŒr eigene Fabrik 1866 [McElroy's Philadelphia (1866)] Von 1826-37: 18 Maschinen gebaut
Maschinen fĂŒr Buchbinder 1825 Beginn ca.      
Maschinen fĂŒr Buchdrucker 1825 Beginn ca.      

Betriebene Dampfmaschinen

Bezeichnung Bauzeit Hersteller
Dampfmaschine vor 1830 Matthew W. Baldwin & Co.
Dampfmaschine   unbekannt
Dampfmaschinen vor 1874 unbekannt


THEMAGeschichte und Beschreibung
TEXTThe founder of these works, Mr. M. W. Baldwin, is a native of New Jersey, but has been a resident of Philadelphia for over forty years. He commenced his mechanical career as an apprentice to the Jewelry manufacture ; but, on attaining his majority, saw proper to apply the knowledge so obtained to the production and improvement of Bookbinders' Tools, which at that time thirty or thirty-five years ago were generally imported. In partnership with David H. Mason, he prosecuted this manufacture with success; and, by the introduction of new designs, largely
extended and improved Ornamental Bookbinding. To this business was added in 1822, that of engraving rolls for printing cotton goods, which became the source of large profits. They were the originators of this business in this country, and pursued it without competition until they had brought it to a degree of perfection that defied foreign competition. Subsequently, Banknote engraving was attempted with fair success. These pursuits required the invention and manufacture of a variety of tools and machinery adapted to particular uses, the getting up of which gradually introduced the Machine business, and the manufacture of Hydraulic Presses, Rolls for Calendering Paper, Stationary Engines, and finally the Locomotive. In 1830, at the request of Mr. Peale, the proprietor of the Philadelphia Museum, Mr. Baldwin constructed a model Locomotive Engine for exhibition, which was put in use in 1831, hauling five or six passengers in a train of cars, and attracting crowds to the then novel sight. This led to an order for an engine from the Philadelphia and Germantown Railroad Company; it was completed in 1832, and placed on the road
in January, 1833. This was, undoubtedly, the first successful American Locomotive Engine ; and, from the records in the newspapers of that day, its performance was not exceeded for years after, having made a mile in less than a minute. The business was now commenced, and extended as rapidly as. the necessary tools, patterns, and fixtures, could be obtained. During the years 1833-34, five engines were built, and the large shops on Broad, above Callowhill street, now occupied as their works, were commenced and completed. In 1835, fourteen Locomotives were manufactured; in 1836, forty; and in 1837, between forty-five and fifty. The financial revulsions of the period reduced the
number, in 1838, to twenty-four. The leading features of the engines built by Mr. Baldwin, and which established his reputation upon a permanent basis, were their simplicity, strength, and durability. The greater portion are yet in use; and, within the limit of their power, are still doing duty profitably to their owners, and creditably to the skill of the builder. The plan of attaching the cylinders to the outside of the smoke-box, now almost universally adopted, originated with Mr. Baldwin ; and also the metallic ground joints, and various minor improvements, upon which the present perfection of the Locomotive Engine depends.
In 1842, Mr. Baldwin introduced the six and eight-wheel connected engine, with an arrangement of truck for adaptation to the curves and undulations of the road. The superintendent of the largest coal freighting road in the United States says of these: "They are saving us thirty per cent, in every trip on the former cost of Motive or Engine Power."
In 1854, Mr. MATTHEW BATRD became associated with Mr. Baldwin, under the present firm style of "M. W. Baldwin & Co."
Mr. Baird is a practical mechanic, who is familiar both with the details of the Locomotive business since its commencement, and with other mechanical pursuits, and is a gentleman of much and deserved popularity. Contributing to the concern capital, energy, and practical knowledge, it has, with his accession, taken a new lease of prosperous activity. The proprietors of these works have for years been engaged in perfecting a system of engines, by means of which they could be adapted to economical working on almost any grade or curve. Several distinct kinds, and numerous sizes of each kind, from three to thirty-five tons weight, are manufactured with from two to eight driving-wheels. The system of adaptation, and its advantages, are seen in its results. On the Pennsylvania Railroad, Eastern Division, where the grades are moderate, a passenger engine, has been running over eighteen months 133 miles per day
without the loss of a trip for repairs. The success with which difficulties are overcome by engines of this firm's construction, is specially illustrated in a pamphlet published by Charles Ellet, Civil Engineer, describing their working on a mountain top, over the Blue Ridge. He says: "We should not regard mountainous regions as necessarily excluded from participation in all the comforts and conveniences due to the railroad, because they can only be reached by lines of very steep grade or very abrupt curvature. The American Locomotive can penetrate into the most retired valleys of Switzerland, and bring forth the products of their industry. Wherever men can go to cultivate the earth with profit, there the locomotive can follow to take away the produce of their soil. In fact, the engines daily running on this road, and drawing after them regular trains of forty or fifty tons of freight and passengers up grades rising at the rate of 296 feet per mile, and swinging their trains of eight- wheel cars around curves of less than 300 feet radii, are capable of carrying the artillery and supplies of an army up the steepest slopes of the present road over the Simplon, and offering facilities to an invader that would have been deemed impossible a very short time ago. This road was opened to the public in the spring of 1854, and it has now, in the autumn of 1857, been in constant use for a period of more than three and a half years. In all that time the admirable engines relied on to perform the extraordinary duties imposed upon them in the passage of this summit, have failed but once to make their regular passage. The locomotives for this severe duty were designed and constructed by the firm of M. W. Baldwin and Company, of Philadelphia. The slight modifications introduced at the instance of the writer, to adapt
< hem better to the particular service to be performed in crossing the Blue Ridge, did not touch the working proportions or principles of the engines, the merits of which are due to the patentee, M. W. Baldwin, Esq. During the severe winter of 1855-56, when the travel upon all the Railways of Virginia, and the Northern and Western States, was interrupted, and on many lines for days in succession, the engines upon this mountain track, with the exception of the single day already specified, moved regularly forward and did their appointed work. In fact,
during the space of three and a half years that the road has been in use, they have only failed to take the mail through in a single instance, when the train was caught in a snow-drift near the summit of the mountain. These results are due, in a great degree, certainly, to the admirable adaptation of the engines employed to the service to be performed; * * * the difficulties overcome in the location and working of the line, very much exceed those which have made the Austrian road over the Soemmering famous throughout Europe, while they have confirmed the claim of the American Locomotive, in climbing steep grades, to unrivaled pre-eminence."
The present extent of the works of M. W. Baldwin & Co., will be best illustrated by the following items of materials consumed during the year 1857, viz.: Bar Iron 1.294.237 pounds, Sheet Copper 103.692 pounds, Boiler and Flue Iron 646.177 pounds, Sheet Iron 35.831 pounds, Tire Iron. 292.235 pounds, Pig Iron 1.901.536 pounds, Axles and Forgings 315.981 pound, Ingot Copper 55.492 pounds, Banca Tin 14.536 pounds, Springs and Steel 114,868 pounds, Anthracite Coal 2.000 tons, Bituminous Coal 25.300 bushels; Value 223,766 69. Iron Flues: value 17,027, Lumber: value 9,017
Files and Hardware: value 11.745 Oil, Paints, Glass, &c: value: 7,322 . In addition to the above, Sheet Brass, Spelter, Charcoal, Belts, Hose, Locomotive Lamps, Steam Gauges, Moulding Sand, Fire-Brick, Clay, Boiler Rivets, &c., &c., were purchased to the amount of 30,000. Over 600 hands were employed, producing machinery equal to seventy-two Locomotive Engines, during the year.
QUELLE[Freedley: Philadelphia and its manufactures (1857) 306]