Norris Locomotive Works

Allgemeines

FirmennameNorris Locomotive Works
OrtssitzPhiladelphia (Penns.)
OrtsteilBush Hill
Art des UnternehmensLokomotivfabrik
AnmerkungenInsgesamt 1244 Lokomotiven gebaut; Bauzeit auch bis 1873 angegeben. Bis vmtl. 1835 "Long & Norris" (s.d.) = "American Steam Carriage Company". GrĂŒnder: William Norris (s.d.). Vergl. "Norris Brothers" (s.d.). Sitz auch angegeben als: Bush Hill, Parkesburg, Chester County, PA [http://boards.ancestry.com] und als Norristown (dieses liegt allerdings im Montgomery County und wurde nach einem Abgeordneten namens Norris benannt; dort gibt es zwar "Norris Works", das ist keine Lokomotivfabrik). Eine Fabrik in Lancaster (Pa.), Plum Street, (mit Schmiede, Gießerei, Maschinenfabrik, Montagewerkstatt, Kesselschmiede, Tischlerei, Dampfhammer, TenderwerkstĂ€tte) war zeitweilig im Besitz von Norris [Metzeltin]; diese bei [Hexamer General Surveys I (1866)] bezeichnet als "The Norris Locomotive Works". Das Werk in Philadelphia wurde 1873 von "Baldwin Locomotive Works" ĂŒbernommen, und die GebĂ€ude wurden grĂ¶ĂŸtenteils nach 1896 abgerissen.
Quellenangabenhttp://www.nber.org/data/industrial-production-index/tech.pdf; Wikipedia [Freedley: Philadelphia and its manufactures (1857) 309]




Unternehmensgeschichte

Zeit Ereignis
16.08.1836 Frederick D. Sanno beginnt als Mechanikermeister bei den "Norris Locomotive Works" in Bush Hill, Parkesburg
1840 William Norris entwirft die PlĂ€ne fĂŒr die Lokomotivfabrik in Schenctady, fĂŒr die Edward Norris die gesamte maschinelle Einrichtung fĂŒr $ 10.576 liefert. Edward S. N. und Septimus N. werden dort Manager.
1861 Das Werk gilt als grĂ¶ĂŸte Lokomotivfabrik der Welt. Von 800 Lokomotiven waren 125 nach Europa gegangen.
05.01.1867 Tod von William Norris in Philadelphia




Produkte

Produkt ab Bem. bis Bem. Kommentar
Dampflokomotiven 1835 Beginn 1867 Ende 1867 oder 1873 (gesamt: 1244 Loks) Insgesamt 1244 Lokomotiven gebaut; Bauzeit auch bis 1873 angegeben. Bis vmtl. 1835 "Long & Norris" (s.d.). Vergl. "Norris Brothers" (s.d.)




Allgemeines

ZEIT1857
THEMAGeschichte und Beschreibung
TEXTThe Norris Locomotive Works originated in 1834, in a small shop, employing but six men, whose united wages was but thirty-six dollars per week. The power was furnished from an adjoining wheelwright shop, by a connecting shaft through a hole in the wall. Previous to this, in 1831, Mr. Wm. Norris, in connection with Colonel Stephen H. Long, General Parker, George D. Wetherell, and Dr. Richard Harlan, had formed a company for building "Locomotors," (as they were then called.) intended for the use of Anthracite coal as fuel. The first Engine was built under the immediate supervision of Colonel Long, at the Phoenix Foundry, Kensington. On the 4th of July, 1832, steam was raised, and it was tested on the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad. The trial proved their first attempt a failure, in consequence of the limited grate and fire surface. The Locomotive would run a mile at fair speed; but would then stop short, until a fresh supply of steam was generated. At these works it is said an Engine was first constructed, capable of ascending heavy grades with loaded cars. This feat was performed by the "George Washington" in 1836. This success excited attention everywhere to the superiority of Philadelphia Locomotives, and orders from Europe were received. In 1837, the Gloucester and Birmingham Railway, England, was supplied with seventeen Locomotives from these works, some of which are still in use.
The present works are very extensive, embracing numerous buildings situated on Hamilton, Fairview, Morris, and Seventeenth streets, on the locality formerly known as Bush Hill. In the year 1853 over one thousand hands were employed in them; and with the improvements in buildings, tools, &c., made since 1853, they can now accommodate over fifteen hundred hands. There are several leading principles observed in the administration of these works, which appear calculated to insure their highest efficiency, and the best quality in their productions. One is the manufacture, upon the spot, not only of the Engines, but as far as possible, of the materials also of which they are composed. All the forged work Tires, Tubes, Springs, Brass and Iron Castings, Chilled Wheels, and other parts, are here made in the best manner, and with the aid of every fixture to be found in establishments supplying separately each of these items. Another is the greatest possible substitution of machinery for manual labor. The tools are adapted, in a special manner, to the execution of each portion of the work ; and each class of tools is specially appropriated to distinct portions of the work. Another is the entire independence of the different departments of the works from each other. Hardly any two distinct branches of labor are carried on together in the same apartment ; but, at the same time, there is the utmost facility for all necessary communication between the separate departments. In the materials used for the Engines, wrought iron is used wherever practicable, and to the exclusion of cast iron. Hammered charcoal iron is used for the boilers; thick brazier's copper is used exclusively for the tubes; and tough scrap is used for all important forgings. Up to the present period nine hundred and thirty-seven Locomotives have been constructed at the Norris Works; the average for the last ten years being about forty Locomotives per year. Of this number, one hundred and fifty-six were on foreign account, having been shipped to England, France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, South America, Cuba, &c.
The cost of a Locomotive, complete, varies between 6,000 and 12,000, although the price is somewhat confused, from the practice of taking stock or bonds of a road in total or part payment, and often at some nominal price, without reference to their real value. The weight of a large first-class Locomotive, whether for freight or passengers, reaches as high as from twenty to thirty tons, exclusive of the tender. It is expedient in practice to use large
Locomotives and haul heavy trains, in preference to the reverse, as the expense of attendance, and, to a certain extent, of repairs, is no greater for a large than for a small engine. The workmen employed in the Locomotive establishments of Philadelphia are a very superior order of mechanics, of whom the citizens of Philadelphia may justly be proud. The greatness of their mechanical creation is, in some respects, a prototype of their physical and mental characteristics.
QUELLE[Freedley: Philadelphia and its manufactures (1857) 309]