William D. Andrews & Bro.


Zum Vergrößern Bild anklicken


William D. Andrews & Bro.: Werbung für diagonale, oszillierende Dampfmaschinen


Allgemeines

FirmennameWilliam D. Andrews & Bro.
OrtssitzNew York (N.Y.)
StraßeWater Street 414
Art des UnternehmensMaschinenfabrik und Kesselschmiede
AnmerkungenAuch Hersteller von "Patent oscillating engines, patent anti-friction pumps"
Quellenangaben[Wiley: American iron trade manual (1874) 92+94] [Scientific American: Anzeige für Lokomobilen] [Beers: Atlas of the oil region of Pennsylvania (1865)] [History of American manufacturing 2 (1868) 535]




Unternehmensgeschichte

Zeit Ereignis
1818 Geburt von William D. Andrews in Grafton, Massachusetts
1828 Die Familie zieht nach Needham, Mass., wo Andrews die Distriktschule besucht und seinem Vater im Hotel und bei der Landwirtschaft hilft.
1832 Andrews beginnt in einem Landhandels-Geschäft in Newtown Lower Falls, wo er ein Jahr arbeitet.
1833 W. D. Andrews zieht mit seinen Eltern nach New York, wo er verschiedenen Beschäftigungen nachgeht.
1840 Andrews beginnt mit seinem Vater einen Eisenhandel.
1844 Andrews beginnt ein Geschäft mit einer Pumpe, die acht inch liefert, angetrieben durch einen Kessel und eine Maschine mit 5 PS Leistung.
1846 Andrews erfindet eine Zentrifugalpumpe, die 1846 patentiert wird.
1846 Tod des Vaters. Andrews gibt das Bergungsgeschäft auf und beginnt den Eisenhandel in New York
1846 Andrews verkauft sein 1846 erworbenes Pumpen-Patent an J. Stuart Gwynne.
1851 J. Stuart Gwynne stellt die von Andrews um 1846 erfundene Pumpe in großem Umfange her, stellt sie auf der Ausstellung in London vor und produziert sie dort.
1858 Andrews errichtet eine Fabrik seiner nach 1851 verbesserten Pumpe unter der Firma William D. Andrews & Brother, in der 414 Water Street, New York.
1862 Patentierung bedeutender Verbesserungen an der Pumpe von Andrews
01.01.1867 Andrews erfindet einen transportablen Kessel für seine Pumpen und läßt sich diesen am 1. Januar 1867 patentieren.




Produkte

Produkt ab Bem. bis Bem. Kommentar
Dampfmaschinen 1865 [Beers: Atlas of the oil region of Pa (1865)] 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] Vorgabe: Steam engines. 1965: auch oszillierende in A-Form mit obenliegender Kurbelwelle.
Hebezeuge 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] Vorgabe: hoisting machinery
Kreiselpumpen 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] Vorgabe: Centrifiugal pumps
Lokomobilen   [Sc. American]     Vorgabe: Portable engines, suitable for oil regions, from 8 to 20-horse power, with large fire place, independent steam feed pump, steam gage ...
Pumpen 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] Vorgabe: pumps
Rauchrohrkessel 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] 1874 [Wiley: American iron trade (1874)] Vorgabe: tubular boilers




Betriebene Dampfmaschinen

Bezeichnung Bauzeit Hersteller
Dampfmaschine 1844 unbekannt
Dampfmaschine vor 1868 William D. Andrews & Bro.




Allgemeines

ZEIT1868
THEMAFirmenbeschreibung
TEXTWhose name has become widely known as the inventor and manufacturer of Centrifugal Pumps and Oscillating Engines, was born in 1818, in Grafton, Massachusetts. In 1828 the family removed to Needham, in the same State, where young Andrews attended the District school and assisted his father in his hotel and upon his farm until 1832, when he entered a country store at Newtown Lower Falls, remaining one year. He then removed, with his parents, to the city of New York, where he was in various employments until 1840, when he engaged with his father, who had opened an iron yard; but soon after, by reason of advances made to a wrecking Company, was obliged to relinquish his business, and take an interest in the Company, to secure the capital he had advanced, being represented therein by the subject of this sketch. In this Company were Phineas Bennet, a noted inventor, and his son Captain Orlando Bennet, famous as a wrecker, and his connection with them first turned his attention to mechanics and invention. Finding the pumps then in use were soon cut out and choked by sand, gravel, etc., their attention was turned to obviating these difficulties. They first used a bellows pump, worked by thirty men, which saved the Garrick and other ships. Next was the Vacuum pump, consisting of a large iron cylinder filled with steam, into which a jet of water was injected, which condensed it and formed a vacuum when the water rushed in and was forced out by again admitting steam. A woo.den float was used to lessen the condensation, but the use of steam was excessive, and the apparatus cumbersome and expensive. After saving the ships "Westchester" and "Louis Phillippe" by its use and finding it would remove large quantities of sand, they devoted themselves exclusively to recovering cargoes of iron along the coast (covered with sand and abandoned), until in the fall of 1843, when by a succession of storms they lost their entire works, pumps, machinery, etc., and being without means sufficient to replace their expensive apparatus, the company dissolved. Necessity being the mother of invention, the faculties of Mr. Andrews were now first fully called into action, and the result was the invention of the Centrifugal pump, afterwards patented in 1846. The original, made of tin and tried in a wash-tub, satisfied his friends of its utility, and his father raised the necessary capital for the comparatively inexpensive outfit required in connection with its use, and as his superintendent, in the spring of 1844, Mr. Andrews again commenced business with a pump of eight inch delivery, driven by an engine and boiler of five horse power, with which he removed more sand than could be done with the unwieldy and expensive vacuum pump and a sixty horse boiler. Losing his father in 1846, Mr. Andrews abandoned wrecking and entered the iron business in New York, selling his pump patent to J. Stuart Gwynne, who manufactured it extensively, introducing it at the World's fair in London in 1851, and it is now manufactured in that city. This Pump, although answering other requirements, consumed too much power, and to obviate this objection, Mr. Andrews invented and patented the Improved Centrifugal Pump, as now manufactured, which, in a trial at the New York Crystal Palace, was found to work with six tenths the power required by the Gwynne pump. Encouraged by this result he started a small shop, mainly to experiment further upon it, without any intention of entering upon the manufacture, but the shop soon grew to large dimensions, and in 1858 was established the manufactory now carried on by the firm of William D. Andrews & Brother, at 414 Water street, New York, in connection with their extensive business as Iron and Metal merchants. As a natural adjunct to the pump, he found it necessary to invent a Steam Engine especially adapted to drive it - one that would run at high speed, and could be easily carried, and required no skill to set it up. The oscillatory form of engine being the most compact, was adopted, and some important improvements were made in it, from time to time, and patented in 1862. The pistons and valves of these engines are nearly frictionless. The piston has no elastic packing, but its rod passes through long fastenings in both covers, and keeps the piston out of rubbing contact with the cylinder, so much, at least, that after five years' use, the tool marks are not worn from it; and yet there is no evidence of leakage. The valve is stationary and held up to the oscillating face of the cylinder by set screws, which seldom require to be adjusted. The steam tends to force the valve from the cylinder face, and if from wear of the trunnions, leakage occurs, it is visible, and the screws may be set up to stop it while the engine is running. These engines are made single or double as required. Their performance with the pumps has been so satisfactory that they have grown into favor for numerous uses, and are largely demanded for work that reqiiires quick motion, such as hoisting, blowing, etc. They are reversed by a valve which turns the steam into the exhaust pipe and the exhaust into the steam pipe, and are well suited to work that requires them to turn both ways. A good, Portable Boiler was desirable for the engine, and Mr. Andrews invented it, and patented it January 1, 1867. It has a large grate and firebox somewhat on the locomotive plan; but the tubes are over the firebox, somewhat on the plan of fire tube marine boilers, and the tubes are of such proportions as to work freely with a natural draft. Being short and wide, and not very high, this boiler presents little surface to lose heat by radiation. The internal arrangements are designed to promote circulation, and to prevent incrustation on the parts exposed to strong heat. Provision is also made for the admission of air to the gases on their passage from the fireplace to the tubes, which produces a perfect combustion, prevents smoke, and greatly reduces the consumption of fuel. Mr. Andrews has patented various other inventions, but the Works are almost exclusively employed in manufacturing his improved pumps, engines, and boilers. They occupy seven buildings, which have been united. Two of them are sixty by seventy-five feet each, and five are sixty by twenty-five feet each. They run four engines of their own make, each about five horse power, and one steam hammer, with steam from a twenty horse boiler. They employ on an average seventy-five hands. Their sales have reached the amount of $200.000 per year. Mr. Andrews, who was not trained as a practical mechanic, has had the good judgment to select an able superintendent, whose practical skill has probably done much to overcome the difficulties that have defeated many attempts to make steam engines work, for a long time, without packing. As may be seen from the foregoing sketch, Mr. Andrews has been, from his, youth, in pursuits that left little leisure for invention, and his inventions have been in the line of his own business, and his general business talent has enabled him to turn them to profitable account. In this respect he differs widely from inventors who make inventing their sole business, and generally fail to establish their inventions profitably. The union of the two talents in him is a happy one, and in one individual is rare; but that it is possible, is illustrated by his example.
QUELLE[Bishop: History of American manufacturers 2 (1868) 535]